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Supporting Cyber Security of Power Distribution Systems by Detecting Differences Between Real-time Micro-Synchrophasor Measurements and Cyber-Reported SCADA

The power distribution grid, like many cyber physical systems, was developed with careful consideration for safe operation. However, a number of features of the power system make it particularly vulnerable to cyber attacks via IP networks. "IT security" approaches to dealing with malware and other cyber attacks via a network include traditional intrusion detection systems, firewalls, encryption, etc... These techniques can help, but as we've observed in a previous project, traditional IT security techniques tend to leave a gap in safety and protection when applied to cyber-physical devices because they do not consider physical information known about the cyber-physical device they are protecting. Not only does this leave a gap in protection, but it ignores valuable information that could be used to better protect the cyber-physical device.

The goal of this is to design and implement a measurement network, which can detect and report the resultant impact of cyber security attacks on the distribution system network. The cyber-attacks against the distribution grid that we primarily focus on are ones that (1) modify the distribution grid operation and causing it to behave in individually or collectively disruptive or damaging ways; (2) mask communication from substation components in the distribution grid, through cyber denial-of-service attack, and prevent awareness of the actual operational function; and (3) mask communication to substation components in the distribution grid, through cyber denial of service attack, causing misbehaving components to fail to receive instructions to restore safe operation. The detection and reporting will be within short time frame, at present not communicable or measured on the distribution system, allowing operators to perform remedial action.

To do this, this project uses micro phasor measurement units to capture information about the physical state of the power distribution grid and combines this with SCADA command monitoring in real time. The project will build models of safe and unsafe states of the distribution grid so that certain classes cyber attacks can potentially be detected by their physical effects on the power distribution grid alone. The result will be a system that provides an independent, integrated picture of the distribution grid's physical state, which will be difficult for a cyber-attacker to subvert using data-spoofing techniques.

This project is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems (CEDS) program.

Principal Investigators:

Sean Peisert (PI; LBNL)
Chuck McParland (Former Co-PI; LBNL → RTISYS)
Ciaran Roberts (Co-PI; LBNL)
Anna Scaglione (Co-PI; ASU)
Emma Stewart (Former Co-PI; LBNL → LLNL)

Senior Personnel Reinhard Gentz (LBNL)
Students Mahdi Jamei (ASU)
Industry Partners:

EnerNex (Erich Gunther (previously), Aaron Snyder, Bob Zavadil, Dave Mueller, Jens Schoene)
EPRI (Galen Rasche, Jens Boemer)
Power Standards Laboratory (Alex McEachern)
Corelight (née Broala)
Riverside Public Utilities
Southern Company

Publications resulting from this project:

Mahdi Jamei, Anna Scaglione, Ciaran Roberts, Emma Stewart, Sean Peisert, Chuck McParland, and Alex McEachern, “Anomaly Detection Using μPMU Measurements in Distribution Grids,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, accepted 16 September, 2017.

Mahdi Jamei, Anna Scaglione, Ciaran Roberts, Alex McEachern, Emma Stewart, Sean Peisert, and Chuck McParland, “Online Thevenin Parameter Tracking Using Synchrophasor Data,” Proceedings of the 2017 IEEE Power Engineering Society (PES) General Meeting (GM), Chicago, IL, July 16–20, 2017

Mahdi Jamei, Anna Scaglione, Ciaran Roberts, Emma Stewart, Sean Peisert, Chuck McParland, and Alex McEachern, “Automated Anomaly Detection in Distribution Grids Using µPMU Measurements,” Proceedings of the 50th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Electric Energy Systems Track, Resilient Networks Minitrack, Waikoloa, HI, Jan. 4–7, 2017.

Mahdi Jamei, Emma Stewart, Sean Peisert, Anna Scaglione, Chuck McParland, Ciaran Roberts, and Alex McEachern, "Micro Synchrophasor-Based Intrusion Detection in Automated Distribution Systems: Towards Critical Infrastructure Security," IEEE Internet Computing," Sept./Oct. 2016. [CDL]

More information is available on other Berkeley Lab R&D projects focusing on cybersecurity in general, as well as specifically on cybersecurity for energy delivery systems.